Informal Peace Agreements
Interim or prior agreements are concluded as a first step towards the conduct of future negotiations. They are generally seen as “agreements” or commitments to reach a negotiated solution and build trust between the parties. Such agreements generally do not deal with procedural or structural issues, but may have some characteristics of a pre-negotiation agreement that specifies when and how negotiations could be conducted. The interim agreements are a sign that the ceasefire is being respected. Interim agreements are also being used to revive a stalled peace process. Like ceasefire agreements, interim or interim agreements are not stable and must be promptly accompanied by negotiations on procedural and substantive issues in order to maintain the positive new momentum of a peace process. We have adopted a broad definition of Track II diplomatic processes and defined them as diplomatic or consultative processes between or between groups that are not major parties to the conflict, which may either be invited to consult each other as part of the formal peace process or hold their consultations separately from the Track I process, and who are anxious to contribute to the negotiations on the end of the war. We then looked for evidence of women`s involvement in formal or informal processes in reporting, contemporary political and UN reporting and science; We have also identified the formal parties to the agreement, the facilitator or mediator, and any other available information about the process and its timing. Women`s participation in peace processes leads to a more sustainable and stable peace. In Colombia, women hold leadership positions in various thematic commissions set up to implement the Havana Agreement.
In other peace processes, on the other hand, the late inclusion of women and other marginalized groups has hindered their influence in the implementation of an agreement in which they did not participate in the negotiations. When women are not allowed to play a real role in negotiating and drafting an agreement, their role in implementation is often not specified, preventing a gradual expansion of inclusion at a later stage. ==References=====External links===*Official website of www.deseret.com/2003/2/3/19702352/women-protest-ivory-coast-peace-pact Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. “Promote women`s participation in peace negotiations and peace processes.” Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), 2014. eeas.europa.eu/archives/features/features-working-women/working-with-women/docs/2014-05-08_toolkit_promoting-womens-participation-peace-neg_en.pdf. Women across Myanmar (Burma) are at the heart of nonviolent popular resistance to the February 2021 military coup against an elected civilian government. Whatever the outcome of the current struggle, the peace process in Myanmar must ultimately be redesigned to reflect the demonstrated capacity of activists to act. Neither the State, nor political parties, nor armed ethnic organizations will be able to marginalize women as they have done in the past. These elites will have to involve women in political dialogue, for example through representative quotas and committed contributions to thematic commissions.
Paffenholz, Thania, Nick Ross, Steven Dixon, Anna-Lena Schluchter et Jacqui True, Making Women CountâNot Just Counting Women: Assessing Women`s Inclusion and Influence on Peace Negotiations. UN Women, 2016. www.inclusivepeace.org. A research project conducted by the Berghof Foundation with a grant from the USIP examined the progressive involvement of civil society and unsigned armed groups in four peace agreements or ceasefire agreements signed in 2015-2016. The evidence – from Colombia, Mali, Afghanistan and Myanmar – shows that the gradual inclusion of women`s groups often does not work. It does not adequately respond to its interests or translate its aspirations into constructive contributions to the peace process or to post-war society. For this to happen, women need to be involved from the beginning. In many cases, when political or economic resources are scarce, political entrepreneurs activate latent cultural or religious identities to build power bases capable of acquiring and controlling these resources. Unfortunately, these cultural roots are often used to commit terrible crimes during a war; Crimes that only help anchor and perpetuate these identities.
Whether these identities are real or perceived or not, they have great value in intense and protracted conflicts. One of the most difficult tasks in structuring peace agreements is therefore to facilitate reconciliation in order to build confidence and restore “normal” relations between the warring parties. Pre-negotiation agreements are those that define how peace is negotiated. These agreements govern procedural issues such as timetables, agendas, participants and venue, as well as the role of the peacemaker and the procedure for drawing up subsequent framework agreements or comprehensive agreements. The management of a peace process often determines whether an agreement is reached. Pre-negotiation agreements serve to structure negotiations and keep them on track. They facilitate the management of a peace process in order to achieve its goal of ending the conflict. Pre-negotiation agreements usually signal the first success of a peace process and thus serve to build confidence and promote confidence between the parties. Garasu, Lorraine. “The role of women in promoting peace and reconciliation.”â Agreement 12 (2002). www.c-r.org/downloads/Accord%2012_7The%20role%20of%20women%20in%20promoting%20peace%20and%20reconciliation_2002_ENG.pdf.
Urges the Secretary-General and his Special Envoys to invite women to participate in discussions on conflict prevention and resolution, the maintenance of peace and security and post-conflict peace-building. Peace agreements must be structured in such a way as to recognize these wrongdoings and, in most cases, to bring justice to the victims. Michelle Maiese`s section on fighting injustice establishes a framework for categorizing injustice and then strategies for addressing injustice in the structure of peace agreements. Historically, peace negotiations have been the business of governments, elites – and men. Even though wars have changed – from clashes between states to the spread of civil wars – the restoration of peace between a few representatives of the fighting forces has remained an elitist agreement. Large sections of society remain excluded. This building block set out the basic ideas for understanding the nature of peace agreements. Much remains to be said. Other building blocks in this group add more information. The following section deals with the substantive provisions of peace agreements, in particular the types of agreements that can mitigate intractable conflicts.
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