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Israel Jordan Armistice Agreement 1949

The United Nations has established monitoring and reporting bodies to monitor established ceasefire lines. In addition, discussions on the implementation of the armistice led to the signing of the Separate Tripartite Declaration of 1950 between the United States, Great Britain and France. They pledged to take action inside and outside the United Nations to prevent violations of borders or ceasefire lines. He also explained their commitment to peace and stability in the region, their rejection of the use or threat of force, and reaffirmed their opposition to the development of an arms race. These lines lasted until the Six Day War in 1967. The ceasefire agreements were clear (at Arab insistence) that they did not create permanent borders. The Israeli-Egyptian agreement states: “The ceasefire demarcation line shall in no way be construed as a political or territorial border and shall be demarcated without prejudice to the rights, claims and positions of any of the parties to the ceasefire with regard to the final settlement of the Palestinian question.” [1] Syria withdrew its forces from most of the areas it controlled west of the international border, which became demilitarized zones. The Syrian-controlled area, which stood west of the 1923 Palestinian Mandate border and had been allocated to the Jewish state as part of the UN partition plan, covered 66 square kilometers in the Jordan Valley. [11] These areas were designated as Demilitarized Zones (DMZs) and remained under Syrian control. It was stressed that the ceasefire line “should not be interpreted as having a link with the final territorial agreements”. (Article V) The latest agreement, the Israeli-Syrian GAA, was reached after many quarrels and delays. It was signed on July 20, 1949 near the Banat Ya╩┐qub Bridge over the Jordan River by Lieutenant Colonel Makleff on behalf of Israel and Colonel Fawzi Silo for the Syrians.

Two main problems continued to hamper the full implementation of this AGM: the status of the demilitarized zones and the use of the waters of the Jordan River and its tributaries. These problems eventually contributed to the main causes of the Arab-Israeli war in June 1967 and the conquest of the Golan Heights by Israeli forces. The Israeli-Syrian GAA stipulated that a number of areas previously held by the Syrian army should be declared demilitarized zones. Sharp disagreements, often leading to violent measures, erupted from the outset over the status and layout of these areas. Israel carried out several civilian projects in these areas without paying attention to the rights of Arab landowners, while Syrian gunners shot at operators of such projects, which they considered a violation of the GAA. Some of these clashes, especially in the 1960s, degenerated into major eruptions, including the use of artillery, armor, and the air force. Ceasefire agreements were to serve only as interim agreements until they were replaced by lasting peace treaties. However, it took three decades to reach a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt, and it took another 15 years to reach a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan. To date, no peace treaty has been signed between Israel and Lebanon[N 1] or between Israel and Syria. The new military borders for Israel, as set out in the agreements, covered about 78 percent of Mandatory Palestine as it stood after independence from Transjordan (now Jordan) in 1946.

The Arab-populated areas that were not controlled by Israel before 1967 were the Jordanian-ruled West Bank and the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip. In March 1949, when Iraqi forces withdrew from Palestine and handed over their positions to the smaller Jordanian Legion, 3 Israeli brigades maneuvered into advantageous positions as part of Operation Shin-Tav-Shin and Operation Uvda. The operations allowed Israel to renegotiate the armistice line in the southern Negev (which provides access to the Red Sea) and the Wadi Ara area in a secret agreement concluded on March 23, 1949 and incorporated into the General Armistice Agreement. The Green Line was then redesigned in blue ink on the southern map to give the impression that a green Line had been moved. [8] The events that led to a change in the Green Line were an exchange of fertile land in the Israeli-controlled Bethlehem area and the transfer of the village of Wadi Fukin to Jordanian control. On 15 July, when the Israeli army expelled the population of Wadi Fukin after the village had been moved to Israeli-occupied territory under the terms of the ceasefire agreement between Israel and the Kingdom of Jordan, the Joint Ceasefire Commission decided on 31 August by a majority vote that Israel had violated the ceasefire agreement by expelling villagers across the demarcation line. and decided that the villagers should move into their own homes. However, when the villagers arrived on the 6th.

Returning to Wadi Fukin under the supervision of United Nations observers, they found most of their homes destroyed and were again forced by the Israeli army to return to the Jordanian-controlled area. [9] Armistice talks with Syria began in April 1949 at Gesher B`not Yaacov on the Jordan River,[10] after the conclusion of the other armistice agreements. The agreement with Syria was signed on July 20, 1949. [4] Morris, Benny. Israel`s Border Wars, 1949-1956: Arab infiltration, Israeli retaliation and countdown to the Suez War. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. Between February and July 1949, General Armistice Agreements (GAAs) were signed between the State of Israel and four Arab states: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. Iraq, which had participated in the war with an expeditionary force, did not conclude an agreement because it did not share a border with Israel; his forces have just left the arena. All negotiations were negotiated on behalf of the United Nations (UN) by Ralph Bunche, whose performance earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 1949. These agreements ended the Arab-Israeli war of 1948. The failure of the UN Mediation Commission on Palestine to conclude broader peace treaties created a de facto situation that transformed the comprehensive ceasefire agreements into quasi-permanent agreements that governed relations between Israel and its Arab neighbors until the 1967 war.

The four agreements also provided for a mechanism for monitoring and dispute settlement […].

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